Could our profession be utilizing highly skilled and empathetic veterinary technicians/nurses to perform companion animal euthanasia rather than us relying mostly on veterinarians? Around 20% of US states allow vet techs to do so with direct veterinary supervision, meaning the veterinarian is overseeing the euthanasia procedure. This is an important step to show that technicians are capable of the work. But what if the vet isn’t onsite, whether in at the hospital or able to assist for a home euthanasia? Will the animal/pet be made to suffer longer until help can arrive? My hope, and that of the Companion Animal Euthanasia Training Academy (CAETA), is to encourage the training of these talented personnel to be 100% prepared to deliver a gentle death whenever it’s needed.
The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) has put together a document titled State Animal Euthanasia Laws (updated May 2023). The document comprehensively lists who is allowed to perform the euthanasia procedure on animals. Veterinarians are the primary facilitator. In animal shelters, euthanasia technicians who’ve taken advanced training may perform euthanasia for shelter animals only. For non-shelter employed veterinary technicians, the document indicates if and how they may assist.
Currently around 10 states allow vet techs to perform euthanasia with (Direct) or without (Indirect) the veterinarian present. Eleven states indicate the technician may perform it as long as the veterinarian is on site and able to assist should the need arise, however some states are unclear on what ‘direct supervision’ actually means. Either situation requires the veterinarian to ‘prescribe’ euthanasia as the best medical procedure for the patient given its physical and mental health. The vet tech cannot decide to perform it without veterinarian consent. The majority, some 27 states, do not allow veterinary technicians to perform euthanasia outside of shelters. This is a big number and one we’d like to see adjusted. Kudos to the states who have identified the ability of veterinary technicians to perform the procedure, especially after taking 2-4 years of veterinary-centric education compared to those in the shelter industry.
Here is a breakdown of the state rules:
Direct Supervision Only
Both Indirect and Direct Supervision Allowed
New Hampshire (reads a bit unclear)
New Jersey (reads a bit unclear)
Not allowed to perform
Euthanasia is considered one of the most common procedures in veterinary medicine. It is rich with emotional and ethical complexity requiring deep reflection before deciding to carry it out. With its commonality comes the need to ensure trained medical personnel are at the ready. Step one will be to ensure veterinary technicians understand these complexities and are prepared to deliver a gentle death. Step two will be to affect change in state legislation to open the door for them.
And veterinarians could use the help. Colleagues routinely tell us their end-of-life services are vastly understaffed, especially with euthanasia support. We feel the use of these skilled, empathetic veterinary technicians increases the number of animals helped in a given day around the US (and around the world). In fact, as of 2020, many veterinary technician schools would benefit from additional euthanasia education to help prepare them for the work. It adds more work to drug management/storage, but when following DEA and state-mandated regulations, vet techs can be a welcomed support line. This becomes a matter of animal welfare.
Want to help direct the conversation? Contact CAETA at [email protected]